Electromigration

Definition

  • Due to high current density, the electrons in the metal moved with high acceleration. And these electrons transfer their momentum to other atoms and the atoms get displaced from their original position and might create voids and hillocks.
  • Hillocks will create shorts and voids will create opens between metal layers.

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Fig (a): Void (Open)                   Fig (b): Hillock (Short)

Solution for Electromigration

  • Increase the width of the wire
  • Insertion of Buffers
  • Upsizing the driver cell
  • Switch the net into higher metal layer











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